Adenocarcinoma

-- A malignant tumor which arises from types of glandular tissue. It is a rare type of bladder cancer

BCG -- Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

-- A weakened form of the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis (bacillus Calmette-Guérin) that does not cause disease. BCG is used in a solution to stimulate the immune system in the treatment of bladder cancer and as a vaccine to prevent tuberculosis. Also called bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

Chemotherapy

–- Treatment of cancer with a drug, or combination of drugs, which target cancer cells by interfering with cell division and growth. It is a bladder cancer treatment for some Invasive bladder cancers.

CIS

-- Carcinoma in situ (flat tumor) -- A non-invasive but high grade form of bladder cancer

Clinical Trials

-- Tests a new treatment of drug on patients to determine the safety and efficacy of a treatment modality

CT

-- Computerized tomography, an imaging technique for visualizing tumors, can be used as part of bladder cancer treatment and diagnosis.

Cystectomy

-- Surgical removal of the bladder, a bladder cancer treatment for some Invasive bladder cancers.

Cystoprostatectomy

-- Surgical removal of the bladder and prostate, a bladder cancer treatment for some Invasive bladder cancers.

Cystoscopy

-- Procedure in which a lighted instrument called a cystoscope, is inserted into the bladder. This is a diagnostic tool that can be used when bladder cancer symptoms are present, or have been present in the past.

FISH

-- Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a test to detect cytogenetic abnormalities in malignant cells in a urine specimen. This is a diagnostic tool that can be used when bladder cancer symptoms are present, or have been present in the past.

Fulgration

-- Destroying a tumor using an electric current, bladder cancer treatment, for some non-invasive (superficial) bladder cancers.

Grade

-- An assessment of how abnormal the cancer cells appear microscopically, and how likely the tumor is to grow and spread. Bladder cancer grade is used in determining bladder cancer treatment.

HMO

-- Health Maintenance Organization. one type of medical insurance coverage

Immunotherapy

-- Bladder cancer treatment with an agent that stimulates the body’s immune system.

Interferon

-- Bladder cancer treatment where naturally occurring substances are used that may help slow tumor growth.

Intravesical therapy

-- A type of bladder cancer treatment where immunotherapy or chemotherapy drugs are placed directly into the bladder.

Invasive Bladder Cancer

-- Bladder Cancer that has spread from the lining of the bladder to the underlying muscle wall, or has spread to nearby areas and lymph nodes.

IVP

-- Intravenous pyelogram--test for checking the kidneys and ureters for the presence of bladder cancer.

Mitomycin C

-- An anti-cancer drug often used during bladder biopsy procedures (see TURBT) to prevent seeding of bladder cancer cells. It may be used intravesically as a bladder cancer treatment for some superficial (non-invasive) bladder cancers.

MRI

-- Magnetic Resonance Imaging, an imaging technique for visualizing parts of the body, it can be used as part of bladder cancer treatment and diagnosis.

Non-invasive Bladder Cancer

-- Bladder cancer which is confined to the bladder wall

Oncology

-- The area of medical specialization that deals with treatment of cancer

Papillary Carcinoma of the Bladder

-- A type of bladder cancer, non-invasive transitional cell cancer which grows outward, rather like a mushroom on a stalk.

Pathologist

-- Physician who identifies diseases by studying cells and tissues. The pathologist will study the biopsies taken and determine the type of bladder cancer, stage, and grade.

PET

-- Positron Emission Tomography, a non-invasive scanning technique for imaging, used to detect cancer spread. Typically done in conjunction with a CT and images are overlaid can be used as part of bladder cancer treatment and diagnosis.

Photodynamic Therapy

-- Type of bladder cancer treatment using drugs that are activated by exposure to light.

Radiation Therapy of the Bladder

-- Type of bladder cancer treatment using exposure to a radioactive substance.

RC

-- Bladder cancer treatment called a Radical cystectomy (surgical removal of the bladder and prostate in men, bladder and reproductive organs in women)

RESECTION

-- Surgically removing tissue

RCC

-- Renal cell carcinoma--kidney (also called renal pelvis) cancer

Small cell carcinoma

-- Squamous cell carcinoma -- both are rare type of bladder cancer

Squamous cells

-- A type of bladder cancer cell with a flat, scale-like appearance

Stage

-- Describes the extent of the bladder cancer, including whether or not it is metastatic bladder cancer meaning it has spread from its original site to another part of the body

Staging system

-- (TNM) -- T represents tumor size; N represents the number of lymph nodes involved, if any; M represents the presence of metastases, if any

Superficial (or Non-invasive) Bladder Cancer

-- Type of bladder cancer that is confined to the bladder surface

Transitional cell carcinoma

-- Most common type of bladder cancer

Transitional cells

-- Cells forming a part of the bladder wall

TUR

-- Minimally invasive surgery performed via the urethra. This is a diagnostic tool that can be used when bladder cancer symptoms are present, or have been present in the past.

TURBT

-- Transurethral resection bladder cancer tumor

TURB

-- Transurethral resection of bladder area that is suspected of bladder cancer.

Urine cytology

-- Test of cells in the urine to detect the presence of bladder cancer cells.

Ureter

-- One of two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder

Urethra

-- A tube which carries urine from the bladder to exit the body

Urology

-- The area of medical specialization that deals with the urinary tract, bladder cancer diagnosis, and bladder cancer treatment.