Glossary of Bladder Cancer Terms
-- A malignant tumor which arises from types of glandular tissue. It is a rare type of bladder cancer
BCG -- Bacillus Calmette-Guerin
-- A weakened form of the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis (bacillus Calmette-Guérin) that does not cause disease. BCG is used in a solution to stimulate the immune system in the treatment of bladder cancer and as a vaccine to prevent tuberculosis. Also called bacillus Calmette-Guérin.
–- Treatment of cancer with a drug, or combination of drugs, which target cancer cells by interfering with cell division and growth. It is a bladder cancer treatment for some Invasive bladder cancers.
-- Carcinoma in situ (flat tumor) -- A non-invasive but high grade form of bladder cancer
-- Tests a new treatment of drug on patients to determine the safety and efficacy of a treatment modality
-- Computerized tomography, an imaging technique for visualizing tumors, can be used as part of bladder cancer treatment and diagnosis.
-- Surgical removal of the bladder, a bladder cancer treatment for some Invasive bladder cancers.
-- Surgical removal of the bladder and prostate, a bladder cancer treatment for some Invasive bladder cancers.
-- Procedure in which a lighted instrument called a cystoscope, is inserted into the bladder. This is a diagnostic tool that can be used when bladder cancer symptoms are present, or have been present in the past.
-- Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a test to detect cytogenetic abnormalities in malignant cells in a urine specimen. This is a diagnostic tool that can be used when bladder cancer symptoms are present, or have been present in the past.
-- Destroying a tumor using an electric current, bladder cancer treatment, for some non-invasive (superficial) bladder cancers.
-- An assessment of how abnormal the cancer cells appear microscopically, and how likely the tumor is to grow and spread. Bladder cancer grade is used in determining bladder cancer treatment.
-- Health Maintenance Organization. one type of medical insurance coverage
-- Bladder cancer treatment with an agent that stimulates the body’s immune system.
-- Bladder cancer treatment where naturally occurring substances are used that may help slow tumor growth.
-- A type of bladder cancer treatment where immunotherapy or chemotherapy drugs are placed directly into the bladder.
Invasive Bladder Cancer
-- Bladder Cancer that has spread from the lining of the bladder to the underlying muscle wall, or has spread to nearby areas and lymph nodes.
-- Intravenous pyelogram--test for checking the kidneys and ureters for the presence of bladder cancer.
-- An anti-cancer drug often used during bladder biopsy procedures (see TURBT) to prevent seeding of bladder cancer cells. It may be used intravesically as a bladder cancer treatment for some superficial (non-invasive) bladder cancers.
-- Magnetic Resonance Imaging, an imaging technique for visualizing parts of the body, it can be used as part of bladder cancer treatment and diagnosis.
Non-invasive Bladder Cancer
-- Bladder cancer which is confined to the bladder wall
-- The area of medical specialization that deals with treatment of cancer
Papillary Carcinoma of the Bladder
-- A type of bladder cancer, non-invasive transitional cell cancer which grows outward, rather like a mushroom on a stalk.
-- Physician who identifies diseases by studying cells and tissues. The pathologist will study the biopsies taken and determine the type of bladder cancer, stage, and grade.
-- Positron Emission Tomography, a non-invasive scanning technique for imaging, used to detect cancer spread. Typically done in conjunction with a CT and images are overlaid can be used as part of bladder cancer treatment and diagnosis.
-- Type of bladder cancer treatment using drugs that are activated by exposure to light.
Radiation Therapy of the Bladder
-- Type of bladder cancer treatment using exposure to a radioactive substance.
-- Bladder cancer treatment called a Radical cystectomy (surgical removal of the bladder and prostate in men, bladder and reproductive organs in women)
-- Surgically removing tissue
-- Renal cell carcinoma--kidney (also called renal pelvis) cancer
Small cell carcinoma
-- Squamous cell carcinoma -- both are rare type of bladder cancer
-- A type of bladder cancer cell with a flat, scale-like appearance
-- Describes the extent of the bladder cancer, including whether or not it is metastatic bladder cancer meaning it has spread from its original site to another part of the body
-- (TNM) -- T represents tumor size; N represents the number of lymph nodes involved, if any; M represents the presence of metastases, if any
Superficial (or Non-invasive) Bladder Cancer
-- Type of bladder cancer that is confined to the bladder surface
Transitional cell carcinoma
-- Most common type of bladder cancer
-- Cells forming a part of the bladder wall
-- Minimally invasive surgery performed via the urethra. This is a diagnostic tool that can be used when bladder cancer symptoms are present, or have been present in the past.
-- Transurethral resection bladder cancer tumor
-- Transurethral resection of bladder area that is suspected of bladder cancer.
-- Test of cells in the urine to detect the presence of bladder cancer cells.
-- One of two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder
-- A tube which carries urine from the bladder to exit the body
-- The area of medical specialization that deals with the urinary tract, bladder cancer diagnosis, and bladder cancer treatment.